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Citing Sources: Books, eBooks & Pamphlets

Learn how to cite your sources using a citation style.

Formatting

Note: All citations should be double spaced and have a hanging indent in a References List.

A "hanging indent" means that each subsequent line after the first line of your citation should be indented by 0.5 inches.

How Can I Tell if it's a Book in Print or an eBook?

A print book means it's printed on paper. If you checked the book out of a library or bought it from a bookstore, it's print.

An eBook is a book you can read entirely online.

Tips

Authors/Editors

An author can be a person but can also be an organization, or company. These are called group or corporate authors.

If a book has no author or editor, begin the citation with the book title, followed by the year of publication in round brackets.

If an author is also the publisher, put the word "Author" where you'd normally put the publisher name. This happens most often with corporate or group authors.

When a book has one to seven authors or editors, all authors' names are cited in the References List entry. When a book has eight or more authors or editors, list the first six authors followed by three spaced ellipse points (. . .) , and then the last author's name. Rules are different for in-text citations; please see the examples provided.


Titles

Capitalize the first letter of the first word of the title. If there is a colon (:) in the title, also capitalize the first letter of the first word after the colon. 

Capitalize the first letter of proper names in titles, such as names of places or people. Example: Canada


Place of Publication

For cities in the US and Canada list the city name and the province or state code. For other countries, list the city name and the country. Examples: Toronto, ON ; Tokyo, Japan


Electronic Books

Don't include the place of publication or a publisher for an electronic book (ebook). Instead follow the rules below:


Ebooks from Library Databases

If an ebook has a doi, use it. Otherwise Seneca Libraries recommends giving the name of the database you found the book from. 


Ebooks from Websites (not from library databases)

If an ebook from a website was originally published in print, give the author, year, title, edition (if given) and the url. If it was never published in print, treat it like a multi-page website.

Book In Print With One Author

Author's Last Name, First Initial. Second Initial if Given. (Year of Publication). Title of book: Subtitle if given (edition if given and is not first edition). Publication City, Province, State or Country: Publisher Name often shortened.

NoteFor cities in the US and Canada list the city name and the province or state code. For other countries, list the city name and the country.

Example

Watson, J. (2012). Human caring science: A theory of nursing (2nd ed.). Sudbury, MA: Jones & Bartlett Learning.

NoteFor cities in the US and Canada list the city name and the province or state code. For other countries, list the city name and the country. 

In-Text Paraphrase (Watson, 2012)
In-Text Quote (Watson, 2012, p. 70)


eBook From a Library Database with One Author

Author's Last Name, First Initial. Second Initial if Given. (Year of Publication). Title of book: Subtitle if given (edition if given and is not first edition). Retrieved from Database Name database.

Example

Schildt, H. (2011). Java: The complete reference (8th ed.). Retrieved from Books 24x7 database.

In-Text Paraphrase (Schildt, 2011)
In-Text Quote (Schildt, 2011, p. 101)


eBook From a Website with One Author

Author's Last Name, First Initial. Second Initial if Given. (Year of Publication). Title of book: Subtitle if given (edition if given and is not first edition) [Name of Electronic Book Provider or Device version if any, e.g. Google Books version, Kobo version]. Retrieved from URL

Example

Nightingale, F. (1860). Notes on nursing: What it is, and what it is not [Google Books version]. Retrieved from http://books.google.ca/books?id=YxIDAAAAQAAJ&dq=nursing&pg=PR5#v=onepage&q&f=false

In-Text Paraphrase (Nightingale, 1860)
In-Text Quote (Nightingale, 1860, p. 157)

 

In-Text Citation For Two to Seven Authors/Editors

Number of Authors/EditorsFirst Time ParaphrasedSecond and Subsquent Times ParaphrasedFirst Time QuotingSecond and Subsquent Times Quoting
Two 

(Case & Daristotle, 2011)

(Case & Daristotle, 2011)

(Case & Daristotle, 2011, p. 57) (Case & Daristotle, 2011, p. 57)
Three to Five (Case, Daristotle, Hayek, & Raash, 2011) (Case et al., 2011) (Case, Daristotle, Hayek, & Raash, 2011, p. 57) (Case et al., 2011, p. 57)
Six or More

(Case et al., 2011)

(Case et al., 2011) (Case et al. 2011, p. 57) (Case et al., 2011, p. 57)

Book in Print with Two to Seven Authors

Last Name of First Author, First Initial. Second Initial if Given, & Last Name of Second Author, First Initial. Second Initial if Given. (Year of Publication). Title of book: Subtitle if given (edition if given and is not first edition). Publication City, Province, State or Country: Publisher Name often shortened.

Note: Authors' names are separated by commas. Put a comma and an ambersand (&) before the name of the last author cited.

For cities in the US and Canada list the city name and the province or state code. For other countries, list the city name and the country. 

Example

Case, L. P., Daristotle, L., Hayek, M. G., & Raash, M. F. (2011). Canine and feline nutrition : A resource for companion animal professionals (3rd ed.). Maryland Heights, MO: Mosby.

NoteFor cities in the US and Canada list the city name and the province or state code. For other countries, list the city name and the country. 

In-Text    See chart here

eBook From a Library Database with Two to Seven Authors

Last Name of First Author, First Initial. Second Initial if Given, & Last Name of Second Author, First Initial. Second Initial if Given. (Year of Publication). Title of book: Subtitle if given (edition if given and is not first edition). Retrieved from Database Name database.

Example

Simpson, M.T., Backman, K., & Corley, J.E. (2012). Hands-on ethical hacking and network defense. Retrieved from Safari Books Online database.

In-Text See chart here



eBook From a Website with Two to Seven Authors

Last Name of First Author, First Initial. Second Initial if Given, & Last Name of Second Author, First Initial. Second Initial if Given. (Year of Publication). Title of book: Subtitle if given (edition if given and is not first edition) [Name of Electronic Book Provider or Device version if any, e.g. Google Books version, Kobo version]. Retrieved from URL

Example

Allen, G. M., & Tozzer, A. M. (1910). Animal figures in the Maya codices. [Project Gutenburg version]. Retrieved from  http://www.gutenberg.org/ebooks/19042   

In-Text Paraphrase (Allen & Tozzer, 1910)
In-Text Quote    (Allen & Tozzer, 1910, p. 67)

Short Stories, Essays, Chapters or Articles From a Book (Anthology or Collection)

Note: All citations should be double spaced and have a hanging indent in a References List

Author's Last Name, First Initial. Second Initial if Given. (Year of Publication). Title of chapter, article, essay or short story. In Editor's First Initial. Second Initial if Given. Editor's Last Name (Ed.), Title of book (pp. first page number-last page number). Publication City, Province, State or Country: Publisher Name often shortened.

Note:

If you have more than one editor list their name(s) after the first editor listed in the book, giving their initials and last name. Put an ambersand (&) before the last editor's name.

When you have one editor the short form (Ed.) is used after the editor's name. If you have more than one editor use (Eds.) instead.

For cities in the US and Canada list the city name and the province or state code. For other countries, list the city name and the country. 

Example

Kafka, F. (2002). The metamorphosis. In The hudson book of fiction: 30 stories worth reading (pp. 62-98). New York, NY: McGraw-Hill.

Note: If there is no editor given you may leave out that part of the citation. 

For cities in the US and Canada list the city name and the province or state code. For other countries, list the city name and the country. 

In-Text Paraphrase (Kafka, 2002)
In-Text Quote (Kafka, 2002, p. 81 )

 

 

Book With Group or Corporate Author

Name of Corporate Author. (Year of Publication). Title of book: Subtitle if given (edition if given and is not first edition). Publication City, Province, State or Country: Publisher Name often shortened.

Note: For cities in the US and Canada list the city name and the province or state code. For other countries, list the city name and the country. 

Example

American Psychological Association. (2010). Publication manual of the American Psychological Association (6th ed.). Washington, DC: Author.

Note:

For cities in the US and Canada list the city name and the province or state code. For other countries, list the city name and the country. 

If the Corporate Author is also the publisher of the book, put the word "Author" where you'd normally put the Publisher Name.

In-Text Paraphrase (American Psychological Association, 2010)
In-Text Quote (American Psychological Association, 2010, p. 205 )

 

Pamphlet in Print with a Group or Corporate Author

Name of Corporate/Group Author. (Year of Publication). Title of pamphlet or brochure: Subtitle if given [Brochure]. Publication City, Province, State or Country: Publisher Name often shortened.

Note: For cities in the US and Canada list the city name and the province or state code. For other countries, list the city name and the country. 

Use the term [Brochure] for a pamphlet or brochure.

Example

Region of Waterloo Public Health. (n.d.). Eat well for less [Brochure]. Waterloo, ON: Author.

Note: For cities in the US and Canada list the city name and the province or state code. For other countries, list the city name and the country. 

Use the letters n.d. where you would normally put the date of publication when no date is provided.

In this example the author is also the publisher of the brochure. In this case put the word Author where you'd normally put the publisher's name.

In-Text Paraphrase (Region of Waterloo Public Health, n.d.)
In-Text Quote (Region of Waterloo Public Health, n.d., p. 15)