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Citing Sources: Videos & DVDs

Learn how to cite your sources using a citation style.

Tips

Who to Credit - DVD or Film

Many people can be involved in the production of a video and not all need to be listed in the citation. Typically the director, producer and/or writer are the names that are used. To clarify what role the person has in the production, their job title such as Director is put after their name in round brackets if the job title is known.

Who to Credit - Streaming Video from a Website

For videos from websites such as YouTube or Vimeo, credit the person who posted the content. If a real name is provided, use that followed by the person's user name in square brackets. If the real name of the person who posted the content is not known, just use their user name without brackets.


DVD With Named Producer, Director or Writer

Producer/Director/Writer's Last Name, First Initial. Second Initial if given. (Role(s) in Production e.g. Director, Writer, Producer). (Year DVD was produced). Title of DVD [DVD]. City of Publication, Province Code/State Code/Country: DVD Distributor if Known.

Note: For cities in the US and Canada list the city name and the province or state code. For other countries, list the city name and the country. 

Example

Hallam, J. (Producer, Writer), & Lam, K. (Producer, Director). (2010). Staff relations in healhcare: Working as a team [DVD]. New York, NY: Insight Media

Note: When you have more than one producer, writer and/or writer to credit, separate the names with a comma and put an ambersand (&) before the last person's last name.

For cities in the US and Canada list the city name and the province or state code. For other countries, list the city name and the country. 

In-Text Paraphrase (Hallam & Lam, 2010)
In-Text Quote

(Hallam & Lam, 2010)

Note: Because the DVD does not have page numbers, paragraph numbers or section headings,this information is left out of the in-text citation.


DVD With Unknown Producer, Director and/or Writer

Title of DVD [DVD]. (Year DVD was Produced). City of Publication, Province Code/State Code/Country: DVD Distributor if Known. 

Note: When the Director, Producer and/or Writer is not known, start the citation with the DVD title. 

For cities in the US and Canada list the city name and the province or state code. For other countries, list the city name and the country. 

Example

Era of viruses [DVD]. (2006). Princeton, NJ: Films for the Humanities and Sciences. 

Note: For cities in the US and Canada list the city name and the province or state code. For other countries, list the city name and the country. 

In-Text Paraphrase

(Era Of Viruses, 2006)

Note: Italicize the title of the DVD and capitalize the words for the in-text citation

In-Text Quote

(Era Of Viruses, 2006)

Note: Italicize the title of the DVD and capitalize the words for the in-text citation

Because the DVD does not have page numbers, paragraph numbers or section headings,this information is left out of the in-text citation.

 

Television Series Episode

Writer, Producer and/or Director's Last Name, First Initial. Second Initial if given. (Job Title) if known. (Year the episode was originally aired). Title of episode [Television series episode]. In Executive Producer's First Initial. Last Name (Executive producer) if known, Television series name. City of production company, Two Letter Province or State Code/Country Name: Production Company.

Note: For cities in the US and Canada list the city name and the province or state code. For other countries, list the city name and the country. 

Example

Young, R. (Writer, Producer, Director). (2010). Flying cheap [Television series episode]. In Frontline. Washington, DC: American University School of Communication's Investigative Reporting Workshop.

Note: For cities in the US and Canada list the city name and the province or state code. For other countries, list the city name and the country. 

In-Text Paraphrase

(Young, 2010)

In-Text Quote

(Young, 2010)

NoteBecause the DVD does not have page numbers, paragraph numbers or section headings,this information is left out of the in-text citation.

Movie/Film Viewed in a Theatre

Writer, Producer and/or Director's Last Name, First Initial. Second Initial if given. (Job Title) if known. (Year the movie was produced). Title of movie: Subtitle if any [Motion picture] City of production company if known, Two Letter Province or State Code or Country Name: Production Company.

Example

Godfrey, W., & Rosenfelt (Producers), & Slade, D. (Director). (2010). The twilight saga: Eclipse [Motion picture]. United States: Summit Entertainment.

Note: For cities in the US and Canada normally list the city name and the province or state code. For other countries, list the city name and the country. In this example the specific city was not known.

In-Text Paraphrase

(Godfrey, Rosenfelt, & Slade, 2010)

In-Text Quote

(Godfrey, Rosenfelt, & Slade, 2010)

NoteBecause the movie does not have page numbers, paragraph numbers or section headings,this information is left out of the in-text citation.