Skip to main content

Citing Sources: Journal Articles

We are transitioning to APA 7th ed. Check with your professor to see which APA edition they require.

What is a DOI?

DOI Numbers in Library Databases or Print Edition

Some electronic and print content is assigned a unique number called a Digital Object Identifier (DOI). If a DOI is provided for a journal article, include it after the page numbers of the article.  The DOI should be formatted similarly to a URL, beginning with http:// or https://

You do not need to put a period after a DOI number.

Formatting

Note: All citations should be double spaced and have a hanging indent in a Reference List.

A hanging indent means that each subsequent line after the first line of your citation should be indented by 0.5 inches.

See how to create a hanging indent in Word here (see top tabs for Windows, Mac and Web options).

How Do I Know If It's a Journal?

Journals on a shelf - photo from Flickr by the.Firebottle

Photo from Flickr under Creative Commons license, created by the.Firebottle

Not sure whether your article is from a journal? Look for these characteristics:

  • Main purpose is often to report results of original search
  • Articles usually have a very specific subject focus
  • May see sections such as abstract, discussion, results, and conclusion
  • Author of the article is an expert or specialist in the field and often their credentials are listed
  • Article is intended for students, scientists, researchers and/or professionals instead of the general public
  • Usually includes a References list at the end

 

Tips

Author

If an item has no author, start the citation with the article title.

When an article has one to 20 authors, all authors' names are cited in the References List entry. When an article has 21 or more authors  list the first 19 authors followed by three spaced ellipse points (. . .) , and then the last author's name. Rules are different for in-text citations; please see the examples provided.

Titles

Italicize titles of journals, magazines and newspapers. Do not italicize the titles of articles.

Capitalize only the first letter of the first word of the article title. If there is a colon in the article title, also capitalize the first letter of the first word after the colon.

Dates

If an item has no date, use the short form n.d. where you would normally put the date.

Volume and Issue Numbers

Italicize volume numbers but not issue numbers

Retrieval Dates

Most articles will not need these in the citation. Only use them for online articles from places where content may change often, like a free website or a wiki.

Page Numbers

If an article doesn't appear on continuous pages, list all the page numbers the article is on, separated by commas. For example (4, 6, 12-14)

Journal Article From Library Database with DOI - One Author

First Author's Last Name, First Initial. Second Initial if Given(Year of Publication). Title of article: Subtitle if any. Name of Journal, Volume Number(Issue Number if given), first page number-last page number. DOI

 Example

 Bailey, N. W. (2012). Evolutionary models of extended phenotypes. Trends in Ecology & Evolution, 27(10), 561-569. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tree.2012.05.011

 In-Text   Paraphrase

 (Author's Last Name, Year)

 (Bailey, 2012)

 In-Text Quote

 (Author's Last Name, Year, p. Page Number)

 (Bailey, 2012, p. 562)

Journal Article From Library Database no DOI - One Author

Author's Last Name, First Initial. Second Initial if Given. (Year of Publication). Title of article: Subtitle if any. Name of Journal, Volume Number(Issue Number if given), first page number-last page number. 

 Example

 Carlisle, D. (2012). In the line of fire. Nursing Standard, 26(39), 18-19. 

 In-Text Paraphrase

 (Author's Last Name, Year)

 (Carlisle, 2012)

 In-Text Quote

 (Author's Last Name, Year, p. Page Number)

 (Carlisle, 2012, p. 18)

Journal Article From a Website - One Author

Author's Last Name, First Initial. Second Initial if Given. (Year of Publication). Title of article: Subtitle if any. Name of Journal, Volume Number(Issue Number if given). first page number-last page number if given. URL

 Example

 Flachs, A. (2010). Food for thought: The social impact of community gardens in the Greater Cleveland Area. Electronic Green Journal, 1(30). http://escholarship.org/uc/item/6bh7j4z4

 In-Text   Paraphrase 

 (Author's Last Name, Year)

 (Flachs, 2010)

 In-Text   Quote

 (Author's Last Name, Year, p. Page Number)

 (Flachs, 2010, Conclusion section, para. 3)

Note: In this example there were no visible page numbers or paragraph numbers. In this case, you can cite the section heading and  the number of the paragraph in that section (counted manually) to identify where your quote came from. 

Journal Article In Print - One Author

Author's Last Name, First Initial. Second Initial if Given. (Year of Publication). Title of article: Subtitle if any. Name of Journal, Volume Number(Issue Number if given), first page number-last page number. DOI if included

 Example

 Jungers, W. L. (2010). Biomechanics: Barefoot running strikes back. Nature, 463(2), 433-434.

 In-Text Paraphrase

 (Author's Last Name, Year)

 Example: (Jungers, 2010)

 In-Text Quote

 (Author's Last Name, Year, p. Page number)

 Example: (Jungers, 2010, p. 433)

Journal Article with Two Authors

First Author's Last Name, First Initial. Second Initial if Given. & Second Author's Last Name, First Initial. Second Initial if Given. (Year of Publication). Title of article: Subtitle if any. Name of Journal, Volume Number(Issue Number if given), first page number-last page number. DOI or URL if included

 Example

 Avgitidou, S., & Stamou, A. G. (2013). Constructing Childhood: Discourses about school violence in the Greek daily press. Children & Society, 27(3), 174-183. http://dx.doi.org./10.1111/j.1099-0860.2011.00402.x

 In-Text   Paraphrase

 (First Author's Last Name & Second Author's Last Name, Year)

 (Avgitidou & Stamou, 2013)

 In-Text   Quote

 (First Author's Last Name & Second Author's Last Name, Year, p. Page Number)

 (Avgitidou & Stamou, 2013, p. 176)

Journal Article with Three to 20 Authors

Last Name of First Author, First Initial. Second Initial if Given., Last Name of Second Author, First Initial. Second Initial if Given., & Last Name of Last Author, First Initial. Second Initial if Given. (Year of Publication). Title of article: Subtitle if any. Name of Journal, Volume Number(Issue Number if given), first page number-last page number. DOI or URL if included

Note: Separate the authors' names by putting a comma between them. For the final author listed add an ampersand (&) after the comma and before the final author's last name.

 Example

‚Äč Mahoney, C. R., Giles, G. E., Marriott, B. P., Judelson, D. A., Glickman, E. L., Geiselman, P. J., & Lieberman, H. R. (2019). Intake of caffeine from all sources and reasons for use by college students. Clinical Nutrition, 38(2), 668–675. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.clnu.2018.04.004

 In-Text   Paraphrase

 (First Author's Last Name et. al., Year)

 (Mahoney et. al., 2019)

 In-Text   Quote

 (First Author's Last Name et. al., Year, p. Page Number)

 (Mahoney et. al., 2019 p. 669)

 

When You Have 21 or More Authors

List the first 19 authors followed by three spaced ellipse points (. . .) , and then the last author's name.

 Example

 McLeod, O., Silveira, A., Valdes-Marquez, E., Björkbacka, H., Almgren, P., Gertow, K., Gådin, J. R., Bäcklund, A., Sennblad, B., Baldassarre, D., Veglia, F., Humphries, S. E., Tremoli, E., de Faire, U., Nilsson, J., Melander, O., Hopewell, J. C., Clarke, R., Björck, H. M., … Strawbridge, R. J. (2016). Genetic loci on chromosome 5 are associated with circulating levels of interleukin-5 and eosinophil count in a European population with high risk for cardiovascular disease. Cytokine, 81, 1–9. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cyto.2016.01.007

 In-Text   Paraphrase 

 (First author's last name et al., Year)

 (McLeod et. al., 2016)

 In-Text   Quote

 (First author's last name et al., Year, p. Page Number)

 (McLeod et. al., 2016, p. 6)

 

Works by the Same Author with the Same Year

When you are citing two different sources that share the same author and year of publication, assign lowercase letters after the year of publication (a, b, c, etc.). Assign these letters according to which title comes first alphabetically. Use these letters in both in-text citations and the Reference list.

Example In-Text:

Paraphrasing content from first source by this author (Daristotle, 2015a). "Now I am quoting from the second source by the same author" (Daristotle, 2015b, p. 50).

Example Reference List entries:

Daristotle, J. (2015a). Title of first articleMade Up Journal, 26(39), 18-19. 

Daristotle, J. (2015b). Title of second article. Another Made Up Journal, 35(1), 48-55.