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Citing Sources: Social Media

We are transitioning to APA 7th ed. Check with your professor to see which APA edition they require.

Tips

Author

On sites where items are posted under user names but not necessarily proper names, enter the username where you would normally put the author's name. Author in this case will be the main creator(s) for the item you are citing.

Creator information may often be found under a section called "About" for some types of social media, however this is not always standard.

Date

Most items will provide a date they were posted. The standard format for the date is Year, Month Day.

If only part of the date is provided, post what you have such as the year and skip the rest of the date.

If no date is provided, use the initials n.d. where you would normally put the date. For Wikipedia articles, provide the date of the most recent archived version, and include the URL for this version in the citation.

Formatting

Note: All citations should be double spaced and have a hanging indent in a Reference List.

A "hanging indent" means that each subsequent line after the first line of your citation should be indented by 0.5 inches.

Twitter Post (Tweet) - Individual Author

Author's Last Name, First Initial. Second Initial if Given. [@Author's Twitter handle]. (Year tweet was posted, Month Day). First 20 words of post [Description of audiovisuals if included] [Tweet]. Twitter. URL

Note: Keep spelling, grammar, and capitalization the same as in the original, even if there are errors. Include URLs, hashtags, and emojis.

Audiovisuals: If images, GIFs, videos, thumbnails or links to outside sources are included, describe in square brackets after the title.

Example

Tory, J. [@JohnTory]. (2020, January 8). Toronto’s tourism sector is thriving. Each year, Toronto welcomes more than 27 million visitors & that number has been growing [Image attached] [Tweet]. Twitter. https://twitter.com/JohnTory/status/1214917132456251393

In-Text Paraphrase

(Tory, 2020)

In-Text Quote

(Tory, 2020)

Note: Because tweets do not have page numbers, paragraph numbers or section headings, this information is left out of the in-text citation.

Twitter Post (Tweet) - Corporate or Group Author

Name of Corporate/Group Author. [@Author's Twitter handle]. (Year tweet was posted, Month Day). First 20 words of post [Description of audiovisuals if included] [Tweet]. Twitter. URL

Note: Keep spelling, grammar, and capitalization the same as in the original, even if there are errors. Include URLs, , and emojis.

Audiovisuals:GIFs, videos, thumbnails or links to outside sources are included, describe in square brackets after the title.

Example

George Brown College. [@GBCollege]. (2019, November 21). Today GBC and @SaskPolytech signed an agreement to prepare learners for success in the global economy. We’re collaborating on curriculum [Image attached] [Tweet]. Twitter. https://twitter.com/GBCollege/status/1197601394833940481

In-Text Paraphrase

 (George Brown College, 2019)

In-Text Quote

 (George Brown College, 2019)

Note: Because tweets do not have page numbers, paragraph numbers or section headings,this information is left out of the in-text citation.

YouTube Video - Poster's Name Known

Last Name of person who posted the video, First Initial. Second Initial if given. [Screen name]. (Year video was posted, Month Day). Title of video [Video]. Name of streaming website. URL

Note:

  • According to APA, for citing purposes the person who posted the video is credited as the author, even if they did not create the work. 
  • If the screen name is the same as the author's name, omit it from the citation. 
  • The same format applies for other streaming sites with user-generated content, e.g. Vimeo, TikTok, etc. For streaming videos from library databases such as Kanopy, or streaming TV services such as Netflix or Amazon Prime, cite the video as you would cite a film or TV series.

 

Example

Nye, B. [TheRealBillNye]. (2009, April 8). Bill Nye the science guy on energy [Video]. YouTube. http://youtu.be/0ASLLiuejAo

In-Text Paraphrase

(Creator's Last Name, Year)

(Nye, 2009)

In-Text Quote

(Creator's Last Name, Year, Time Stamp)

(Nye, 2009, 1:24)

Note: Because videos typically do not have page numbers, paragraph numbers or section headings, instead include a time stamp for the beginning of the quotation. 

YouTube Video - Poster's Name Not Known

Username that posted the video. (Year video was posted, Month Day). Title of video [Video]. Name of streaming website. URL

Note: According to APA, for citing purposes the person who posted the video is credited as the author, even if they did not create the work.

The same format applies for other streaming sites with user-generated content, e.g. Vimeo, TikTok, etc. For streaming videos from library databases such as Kanopy, or streaming TV services such as Netflix or Amazon Prime, cite the video as you would cite a film or TV series.

 

Example

Crash Course. (2015, February 5). Moon phases: Crash Course astronomy #4 [Video]. YouTube. https://youtu.be/AQ5vty8f9Xc

In-Text Paraphrase

(Username, Year)

(Crash Course, 2015)

In-Text Quote

(Username, Year, Time Stamp)

(Crash Course, 2015, 2:07)

Note: Because videos typically do not have page numbers, paragraph numbers or section headings, instead include a time stamp for the beginning of the quotation. 

Blog Post

Author's Last Name, First intial. Second Initial if Given. (Year blog post was published, Month Day). Title of blog post. Title of Blog. URL

Example

Brakenridge, M. A. (2020, January 28). Educator spotlight: Investigating ecosystem diversity. National Geographic Education Blog. https://blog.education.nationalgeographic.org/2020/01/28/educator-spotlight-investigating-ecosystem-diversity/

Note: If the blog author's real name is not provided, use their username instead.

In-Text Paraphrase

(Author's Last Name, Year)

(Brakenridge, 2020)

In-Text Quote

(Author's Last Name, Year, Section Heading section if given, para. Paragraph Number)

(Brakenridge, 2020, para. 6)

Note: If the blog post has no paragraph numbers, count the paragraphs manually. 

Podcast Episode

Director/Producer/Host's Last Name, First intial. Second Initial if Given. (Role in the production e.g. Host, Director, Producer). (Year podcast was released, Month Day if given). Title of podcast episode: Subtitle if given (Episode Number if Given) [Audio podcast episode]. In Title of Podcast. Production Company. URL

Note: Specify the type of podcast (audio or video) in square brackets.

If the podcast does not number episodes, omit the number from the reference. 

Example

Rogers, S. (Host). (2020, March 6). Carol Rose GoldenEagle, Megan Gail Coles [Audio podcast episode]. In The Next Chapter. CBC. https://www.cbc.ca/listen/live-radio/1-67-the-next-chapter/clip/15764007-carol-rose-goldeneagle-megan-gail-coles-the-full-episode

In-Text Paraphrase

(Director/Producer/Host's Last Name, Year)

(Rogers, 2020)

In-Text Quote

(Director/Producer/Host's Last Name, Year, Time Stamp)

(Rogers, 2020, 14:26)

Note: Because podcasts do not have page numbers, paragraph numbers or section headings, instead include a time stamp for the beginning of the quotation. 

Mobile Application Software (App)

Name of Company that created the application or Creator's Last Name, First Initial. Second Initial if Given. (Year current version of the application was released). Name of application (Version number if given) [Mobile app]. Publisher. URL application was downloaded from

Example

Parks Canada. (2018). Parks Canada - National App (Version 5.0.6) [Mobile app]. App Store. https://apps.apple.com/ca/app/parks-canada-national-app/id1232267399

In-Text Paraphrase

(Name of Company or Author's Last Name, Year)

(Parks Canada, 2018)

In-Text Quote

(Name of Company or Author's Last Name, Year)

(Parks Canada, 2018)

Note: Because apps typically do not have page numbers, paragraph numbers or section headings,this information is left out of the in-text citation.