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Citing Sources: Interviews and Emails (Personal Communications)

How do I cite...

When Is personal communication (in person, emails, and telephone) used In citation?

The category "Personal Communications" is used in situations where you are taking information from a source such as an email thread or an interview you conducted with someone else. In this case the work isn't published anywhere, someone else couldn't find and read the full interview or email on their own.

Sometimes you may find interviews with people in journals, magazines, newspapers, websites, etc. In those cases don't use the "Personal Communications" category. Instead, cite them according to where you found the information.

For example, an interview in a magazine would be cited like a magazine article. That way anyone reading your assignment could easily track down the interview for themselves by finding the same magazine article.


Last Name of Person Who Was Interviewed, First Name. Description of Interview. Day Month Year of interview. Personal Interview.

Works Cited List Example

 Myers, Elizabeth. The Dangers of Violence in the Media. 12 Mar. 2016. Personal Interview.

In-Text Citation Example

 (Last Name of Person Who Was Interviewed)

 Example: (Myers)

 Note: If the name of the person who was interviewed is mentioned in the sentence leading into the quote or paraphrased content, you do not need to repeat it in the in-text citation:

 Myers explained that "media violence is dangerous because it has been eroticized."


Last Name, First Name of e-mail sender. E-mail to Recipient Name. Day Month Year email was sent.

Works Cited List Example    


 Kelly, Samantha. E-mail to Safety Committee. 10 Feb. 2010.

 Logan, Marshall. E-mail to Laura Singh. 21 Sept. 2020.

In-Text Citation Example

 (Last Name of Email Sender)