Abstract: Provided the mechanism of frost heave is understood, difficulties associated with it can be prevented at reasonable cost. For plants operated continuously at below- freezing temperatures it is probable that the most satisfactory solution is to provide heat. In plants operated on a seasonal basis the use of non-frost- susceptible back-fill and insulation may be preferable.
Abstract: Serious damage can result from the encroachment of roots into the immediate environment of foundations if the local soil is one that is susceptible to swelling or, more particularly, to shrinking with change in moisture content. It is the purpose of this Digest to explain the problem, to suggest how it can be avoided, and to outline remedial methods to correct damage that trees may have caused.
Subject: Trees (plants); Roots (vegetation); Soil stability; Clay soils;; Basements and foundations : Trees and buildings
Canadian Building Digest; no. CBD-62, ISSN: 0008-3097, Publication date: 1965-02
Abstract: About one half of the total land area of Canada is underlain by perennially frozen ground, more commonly known as permafrost, and as development moves northward consideration must be given to this feature of the terrain. This Digest briefly describes permafrost and its characteristics and discusses problems related to foundation design in permafrost areas.
Subjects: permafrost; soils; foundations; pile foundations; gravel; thermal insulation; Basements and foundations; Sous-sol et fondations: Permafrost and foundations
Canadian Building Digest; no. CBD-64, ISSN: 0008-3097, Publication date: 1965-04
Abstract: Mineral aggregate surfacing is applied to built-up roofing to protect the top coating of bitumen from direct sunlight and to reflect solar radiation. It reduces the maximum surface temperature, the seasonal range of temperatures and the short-time fluctuations at the black surface. It thus inhibits weathering of the bitumen and the bituminous felts of the roofing membrane. There are some disadvantages to the use of mineral aggregate surfacing. Apart from the added dead weight, which must be carried by the deck and structure, the principal difficulty relates to inspection and maintenance. The aggregate surfacing hides defects and breaks in the membrane and must be removed to make repairs.
Abstract: Most problems with roofs can be eliminated, or at least minimized, by compliance with the following principles for roof design: -- 1. Consider all requirements, both individually and collectively, and do not sacrifice one requirement for another without recognizing the consequences of such a decision. -- 2. Design the structure to keep movements and deflections to an economic minimum, and make allowances in the associated constructions for those that will inevitably occur. -- 3. Know the environment in which each material must serve and its effect upon the material. -- 4. Ease the duties imposed on each material by judicious selection and positioning in the assembly.
Abstract: Although the dangers of damage to roofs from hurricane winds are vaguely appreciated by most people, the nature and distribution of wind forces are not generally understood. The subject is complicated and some understanding of air flow around buildings is required as a basis for sound roof design. It is the purpose of this Digest to assist the reader in acquiring this understanding.
Abstract: Examples have been given of the principles to follow in the design of roof flashings. It has been recommended that base flashings are to be kept free of items penetrating a roof; that metal counter flashings are to be separated from the roofing membrane; and that metal counter flashings are to shed water and be free to move at end joints to prevent buckling or breaking. The flashings, of course, cannot be divorced from the over-all design of the building wall and roof systems. The roof, for instance, must be sloped to provide drainage, and the walls designed to control rain penetration. Because of this, all details of the complete water control system should be worked out by the building designer.
Abstract: Thermal performance plays a major role in determining the success or failure of a roof system, and it can be controlled to a high degree by the designer. Thermal considerations in the design of roofs can be divided into two general categories: control of heat loss and heat gain of the space below the roof, and the effects of extremes and variations of temperature on the roof system. In Canadian buildings where temperature control through winter heating and summer cooling is common, heat gain and heat loss are of economic importance. Some roofs may only control heat gain by providing shade from the sun, but all roofs exposed to the weather experience wide variations of temperature. The effects of extremes and variations of temperature are of major importance because they influence the durability of the total roof system.
Abstract: This digest summarizes changes to Supplement 2 of the 1965 National Building Code, titled "Fire Performance Ratings". It includes a list of basic information that is available to the user of the NBC on fire performance of building materials.
Abstract: Air leakage has been common in most buildings, but with increasing standards of performance, the requirement for humidification in winter, and the trend to taller buildings it is becoming less and less tolerable. The positive control of air leakage can only be achieved by careful attention in design, with adequate inspection during construction to ensure that no weaknesses arise from poor workmanship.
Subject: air leakages; infiltration; exfiltration; wind penetration; stack effect; mechanical ventilation; vapor barriers; Air and vapour barriers; Building envelope; Air flow/Wind pressure : Control of air leakage is important
Canadian Building Digest; no. CBD-72, ISSN: 0008-3097, Publication date: 1965-12
Abstract: The design of a successful roof terrace depends upon the designer's ability to select the most compatible compromises. Surfacing materials, when properly installed, can reduce the range of temperature variation in the waterproof membrane and protect it from solar radiation, physical damage, fire and wind. The longest service life of the surfacing materials will be achieved when their thermal movements have been allowed for and they are kept as dry as possible.