Abstract: Factors affecting snow loads on roofs are described, including climatic variables such as amount and type of snowfall, wind, air temperature and the amount of sunshine, and roof variables such as shape, thermal properties, exposure and the surrounding environment. Procedures are outlined for the determination of snow loads to be used in the design of roofs.
Abstract: Causes of dirt and stains on brickwork are discussed and the cleaning methods commonly employed are described. Various cleaning materials and methods are available, but in making a selection consideration must be given not only to the effectiveness of the method but also to the hazards involved and to possible adverse effects.
Abstract: A heat pump is a system that uses refrigeration equipment to take heat from a source and discharge it to a building space requiring it. The same system can be used to remove heat from the space and discharge it to a heat "sink" when cooling is required. Heat sources and sinks for heat pumps can be the ground surrounding a building, water in lakes, rivers or wells, and outdoor air. Although still largely in the research stage, considerable interest has also been shown in the use of solar energy as a heat source for heat pumps. Of all sources, however, outdoor air has been used most extensively because it offers a universal, abundant heat source/sink for heat pump operation. It is the purpose of this Digest to outline the general features and economics of the "air-to-air" heat pump for heating in residential buildings.
Abstract: This Digest is intended to serve as a short introduction to the main Canadian sources of printed information on building technology. The places to begin a search for published information or for directories and periodicals are libraries, either public libraries, which often have a technical section, or the technical libraries of various government and private agencies. Publications on building materials, components and systems are available from Canadian trade associations, many of which are listed.
Abstract: Le présent Digeste sert d'introduction aux principales sources de donées imprimées sur la technologie du bâtiment. La première place où trouver des publications, des répertoires ou des périodiques est une bibliothèque. Les bibliothèques publiques ont souvent une section technique et différentes bibliothèques techniques relèvent des divers organismes publics ou privés. Des publications sur les matériaux, éléments et systèmes de construction sont préparées par les associations professionnelles canadiennes, dont plusieurs sont recensées dans le présent document.
Abstract: Most deaths in fires are caused by the inhalation of smoke, gases and vapours. Harmful products released by various materials in burning are described and methods of evaluating their fire toxicity are discussed. Studies of fire toxicity involve chemical analysis of the decomposition products and biological tests involving animals, but standard test methods have not yet been developed.
Abstract: Design of buildings in flood plain areas to reduce potential damage to them from floods is discussed in relation to structural and economic factors. The basic methods of flood- proofing buildings are described and case studies illustrative of the use of flood-proofing are presented.
Abstract: Electrically-charged particles called air ions which possess various electrical and physical properties are present in the atmosphere in amounts that change due to atmospheric and other conditions. The artificial production of air ions in buildings is described and the results of studies of the effects of air ions on human comfort and health are reviewed.
Abstract: Technology transfer, the diffusion of new or existing technical knowledge into and throughout the building industry, is discussed with reference to the Canadian industry and the activities of the Division of Building Research of the National Research Council. Some DBR endeavours in technology transfer are described, including the issuing of publications, providing information in response to inquiries, presenting seminar/workshops, and the preparation of films and audio-visual packages. Laboratory and field investigations undertaken by DBR and its work on codes and standards are also described.
Abstract: The National Building Code and the National Fire Code are prepared by specialist committees representing technical expertise from across Canada. The purpose and application of the two codes are explained and their principal requirements are discussed.