Abstract: This Digest discusses briefly the general characteristics of thermoplastics, and presents typical useful properties of the technically important types of these materials. It also gives a brief description of the six major families of thermoplastics. Understanding of the nature and properties of the thermoplastics will enable designers and users to understand their performance and suitability in building and engineering applications. It may also suggest new uses in these and related fields.
Subject: thermoplastic resin; properties of materials; building materials; Plastics : Thermoplastics
Canadian Building Digest; no. CBD-158, ISSN: 0008-3097, Publication date: 1974
Abstract: The general nature and properties of thermosetting plastics are discussed briefly, and the typical range of the useful properties are presented. The nature, properties and applications of the major thermosetting plastic families are described in greater detail to promote better understanding of the performance of these materials.
Abstract: This Digest contains a brief description of the factors controlling the heat needed to prevent ice formation on snow accumulation on pavements by the use of embedded snow melting systems. Guidelines for estimating design heat requirements for several urban areas in Canada are presented.
Abstract: Supplementing CBD 13, House Basements, this digest deals to a greater extent with the physical properties of the basement walls. Moisture problems, control of liquid water, thermal problems, drainage and exterior insulation of basement walls are discussed.
Abstract: Silicone water-repellents greatly reduce the water-absorbing properties of many masonry materials, therefore they have been extensively used to treat walls for a variety of faults resulting from their wetting by rain, including water penetration, efflorescence, and decay. The nature of silicones and their action when applied to masonry materials are considered, along with their effectiveness in overcoming certain rain-related faults of masonry walls.
Abstract: Author first discusses the functions and properties of masonry mortar in general including the materials and properties of materials used for mortar preparation, then continues on mortar specification, tests, various types of mortar and briefly touches the preparation of mortar on site.
Abstract: This digest points out the importance of providing an adequate transmission loss through the body of a landscaped screen so that its performance will not be degraded. The variation in speech privacy as the screen dimensions and position are varied is used to emphasize other important parameters. The extreme importance of ceiling reflectivity is also briefly examined.
Abstract: Calcium chloride in small amounts is used as an accelerating admixture in concrete. In addition to reducing the initial and final setting time of concrete, calcium chloride influences other physical, chemical and mechanical properties of concrete. This digest describes the types of calcium chloride, method of addition to concrete, and the effect of this chloride on setting time, strength, volume change, alkali-aggregate reaction, sulfate resistance and corrosion.
Abstract: This Digest discusses the nature and general properties of plastic foams (or cellular plastics). Plastic foams may be either open-cell or closed-cell; they may be flexible, semi- flexible (or semi-rigid) and rigid, depending on the degree of rigidity of the plastic matrix. Rigid closed-cell foams can have good thermal insulation properties and buoyancy characteristics. Open-cell foams can have good cushioning properties (e.g. flexible) and sound absorbing characteristics. Since plastic foams have a relatively large surface area, the problem of flammability is more acute than with bulk plastics.
Abstract: Thermoplastic foams have properties normally associated with thermoplastics. Thus, they are generally susceptible to attack by organic solvents and exhibit a definite melting range. Thermoplastic foams are not adaptable to batch mixing operations nor to on-site (in situ) placement. The major commercial types of thermoplastic foams are polystyrene, poly(vinyl chloride) and cellulose acetate; other well known commercial thermoplastic foams are based on polyethylene, polypropylene and ABS. The most widely used is polystyrene, which is available as two main types: extruded foam and moulded bead foam. The thermoplastic foams are used primarily as thermal insulation. They are also used in flotation applications and in the packaging field.
Abstract: These foams have generally good resistance to solvents and most chemicals. Thermosetting (thermoset) foams do not usually exhibit a melting range and can often be used at higher temperatures than thermoplastic foams, and are adaptable to on-site (in situ) foaming. The best known thermoset foams are polyurethane, phenolformaldehyde and urea-formaldehyde; less well known are epoxy and silicone foams. Some, such as phenol-formaldehyde and urea- formaldehyde, are produced with an inorganic acid catalyst and the acid residue can, in some cases, cause corrosion problems. Polyurethane is the most widely used of all thermoset foams. Applications of thermoset foams include use as thermal insulation, core material in sandwich panels, packaging and fabrication of furniture.
Abstract: About 800 million bricks, made from clay, concrete and calcium silicate by approximately 100 manufacturers, are used annually in Canadian building. The development of the brick industry, the methods of manufacture, brick dimensions, colour, texture, standards and selection, are outlined in this Digest.