Abstract: In the event of fire in the lower levels of a high-rise building, the upper floors and escape routes can become contaminated with smoke very quickly and in less time than is required to evacuate the building. Control of smoke is therefore an important consideration in the design of buildings.
Abstract: Buildings are designed for the able bodied. As a result many disabled and elderly people find building facilities hazardous, awkward, frustrating or unusable. Even minor modifications at the design stage could result in facilities suitable for both the able and many of the disabled population.
Abstract: The rate and degree of sulphate attack depend on the concentration of sulphate present, the type and availability of the sulphate ion, the accessibility of water, and the type of cement and quality of concrete. Preventive measures include the following: use of sulphate-resisting cement, low water-cement ratio, minimum cement content, air- entrainment, waterproof coatings, drainage features, and special attention to reinforcing cover.
Abstract: This Digest discusses single-wall, air-supported structures consisting of four basic components: envelope, anchorage, inflation equipment, and doors. These components must be selected in accordance with carefully specified design criteria to provide for and ensure adequate safety and operation.
Abstract: Salvaged bricks should not give rise to any particular problems when used inside buildings. Their use under conditions that require exposure to weather, however, should be avoided because many of their properties have an adverse effect on the quality and performance of the brickwork. The need for "old-fashioned" bricks for this application can be met from current Canadian brick production which includes bricks imitating the colour, texture, shape and dimensions of the bricks made in earlier times but not possessing their inherent weaknesses. When it is considered necessary to use reclaimed bricks externally, careful attention must be paid to the design of the wall to afford it as much protection as possible from wetting, including that from rain, soil moisture, or the migration of water vapour from within the building. A mortar composed of lime and sand is desirable for laying salvaged bricks.
Abstract: This Digest examines the acoustical environment of an open office plan, and discusses its problems and the elements that can be utilised to obtain acceptable results. A design procedure follows that allows the condition at any point within an open office to be determined at the planning stage.
Abstract: Concrete has long been recognized as a durable and versatile building material, and concrete masonry units are used widely in the construction of modern buildings. Exposure to elevated temperatures characteristic of those attained in fires, however, may induce marked changes in the thermal and rheological properties of the component materials of concrete. Because of this, attention has been focused for some time on the behaviour of masonry units under unusual circumstances such as those experienced during fires. Concrete performance in fire is the subject of this Digest.
Abstract: The proliferation of new lining materials and composite structural products, modification of established products which lead to higher flammabilities, and greater difficulties in testing, and application of the ASTM E84 test to materials for which it was never intended, have presented tunnel furnace operators with serious problems. In the case of thin plywoods and other semi-rigid lining materials (self-supporting across the width of the furnace), new methods of mounting may be required to assure both good reproducibility of results and a realistic appraisal of the behaviour of the material in an actual fire. In some cases it may be necessary to test such materials as part of a structure or assembly. ASTM E84 has probably not attained its final and immutable form.
Abstract: This Digest points out some ways by which building designers and utility planners can help to conserve fuel. The conservation of fuel for space heating is primarily a matter of minimizing losses. It includes minimizing the amount of energy that leaves a building by conduction through the building envelope, air leakage or exhaust from the building, and the discharge of heat by the cooling system. It goes even further, and involves reducing wastage of heat from power stations by having the heat rejected at a sufficiently high temperature to enable it to be utilized for heating buildings. The implementation of all these concepts can result in very significant savings in the amount of fuel used for space heating in Canada.
Abstract: It is the purpose of this Digest to direct attention to the slope stability problem as it relates to clays and to present information on the factors that affect the stability of slopes. Recommendations are given as to the precautions that should be taken to prevent tragedies. Although the clays of the St. Lawrence valley are emphasized, the method of analysis and the corrective measures described can be applied to clays in general.
Abstract: Toxic gases and vapours produced by combustion are responsible for the majority of deaths at building fires. For this reason fire authorities would like to consider regulations to restrict use of materials that produce large amounts of smoke and toxic gases. The present state of knowledge of toxic combustion products is probably not sufficient to guide the designer in his choice of combustible materials to be used in buildings. This Digest was prepared to keep him abreast of the problem and the efforts that are being made in this field.